Suppose you are writing a Python program and want to check if a list is empty. How would you do it? This should be very straightforward, right? Or is it?
An example could be a list of fruits you are keeping track of. The list can be something like the following.
fruits = [ 'apple', 'orange', 'strawberry', 'peach', 'lemon' ]
Suppose you want to check if the list of fruits is empty.
fruits = 
You may be tempted to write code such as the following:
if len(fruits) == 0: print('There are no fruits')
Checking if the length of a list is zero is no longer preferred. It works but is not preferred. Many programmers have even called it unpythonic.
How about checking the list itself?
if fruits = : print('There are no fruits')
It works, but this is also not preferred.
The preferred method is the following:
if not fruits: print('There are no fruits')
This is the pythonic way from the PEP 8 Style Guide.
There is a reason the preferred method is preferred. To check the performance, you can time how long each operation takes.
>>> import timeit >>> min(timeit.repeat(lambda: len() == 0, repeat=200)) 0.0980069637298584 >>> min(timeit.repeat(lambda:  == , repeat=200)) 0.09142899513244629 >>> min(timeit.repeat(lambda: not , repeat=200)) 0.07426309585571289 >>> min(timeit.repeat(lambda: , repeat=200)) 0.06842684745788574
As shown above, using the  is the fastest. Checking with  is slightly faster than not , but they are faster than checking the length compared to 0 or checking against the empty list.